Tuberculosis (TB)

Etiology and Pathophysiology

■ Mycobacterium tuberculosis → granulomas of bacilli that become fibrous
tissue mass (Ghon tubercle) that can calcify or ulcerate and free bacilli
■ Miliary TB: Bacilli may travel to bone, kidneys, or brain

Risk Factors
■ ↓Immune response (HIV, steroids), crowded living conditions
■ Alcoholism, malnutrition

Signs and Symptoms
■ Night sweats, ↓weight, cough, hemoptysis
■ +PPD/Mantoux of 10mm induration indicates immune response
■ +Chest x-ray, acid fast bacteria in sputum

■ Combination of antituberculars for 6-12mo
■ Prophylactic INH for exposure

Nursing Management
■ Use airborne precautions during active disease
■ Teach need for long-term compliance with meds
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