Pneumonia


Etiology and Pathophysiology

■ Microorganisms from upper airway/blood, aspiration of
food/gastric contents → inflammation
(exudate and WBCs into alveoli) →
consolidation,↓ventilation, and ↓diffusion
■ Aerosolized or droplet transmission

Risk Factors
■ ↑ ↓Age, smoking, immunosuppression
■ Winter (Streptococcal pneumonia), summer and fall (Legionella)

Signs and Symptoms
■ ↑ T and WBC, adventitious breath sounds, cough, sputum (character
depends on organism)
■ Chest x-ray indicates patchy or lobe consolidation or infiltrates

Treatment
■ Antibiotic regime based on organism
■ Replace fluid losses secondary to ↑T and ↑R

Nursing Management
■ Chest PT, if ordered; ↑fluids
■ Teach ↓transmission (hand washing, tissue disposal)
■ Teach need to finish med regime to ↓recurrence or resistance
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