Lung Cancer

Etiology and Pathophysiology
■ Altered DNA → alters cellular replication; may be primary or metastatic;
often metastasizes to lymph nodes, bone, brain before diagnosis
■ Types: Adenocarcinoma, small cell (oat cell), large cell (undifferentiated),
and squamous cell carcinoma

Risk Factors

■ Smoking, heredity, ↓intake of fruits and vegetables
■ Exposure to asbestos or radon

Signs and Symptoms

■ Dry, chronic cough; hoarseness
■ ↓Weight, lymphadenopathy
■ Sputum positive for cytology
■ Chest x-ray indicates lesion and possible effusion
■ Biopsy indicates source (primary or secondary)

■ Lobectomy, pneumonectomy
■ Chemotherapy, radiation, palliative care (↓pain)

Nursing Management

■ Lobectomy: Manage chest tubes
■ Pneumonectomy: Place on operative side
■ Chemotherapy: Manage side effects; hospice prn
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