Arterial Insufficiency

Etiology and Pathophysiology
Atherosclerosis → ischemia of extremities (↑incidence in distal legs);
↓sensation → ↑risk of injury

Risk Factors
■ ↑Age, males, heredity, smoking, obesity
■ Inactivity, HTN, hyperlipidemia, diabetes

Signs and Symptoms
■ Leg pain when walking relieved by rest (intermittent claudication)
■ Cool, pale, shiny leg with faint/absent pulse
■ ↓Hair; thick yellow toenails, toe ulcer, gangrene

■ ↓Risk factors
■ Meds to ↓platelet aggregation and ↑flow
■ Bypass grafts

Nursing Management
■ Assess S&S
■ Position legs ↓than heart
■ Apply warmth to abdomen, local heat if ordered
■ Teach to ↓ smoking, ↓ cold exposure and constrictive clothing
■ Foot care: Inspect and protect feet, wear shoes and socks, dry feet well;
dressings as ordered
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