Nursing Precautions


STANDARD PRECAUTIONS

Perform hand hygiene before and after care and when soiled; most
important way to prevent infection
■ Use personal protective equipment (PPE) if touching, spilling, or splashing
of blood or body fluids is likely; use gloves, gowns, mask, goggles,
shields, aprons, head and foot protection
■ Discard disposable items in fluid-impermeable bag and contaminated
items in Biohazard Red Bag
■ Do not recap used needles; dispose in sharps container
■ Hold linen away from body; place in impermeable bag in a covered
hamper; do not let hampers overflow
■ Place lab specimens in a leak-proof transport bag without contaminating
the outside; label with biohazard sticker and patient information
■ Institute procedure for accidental exposure: Wash area, report to
supervisor, receive emergency care, seek referral for follow-up
■ Receive hepatitis B vaccine
■ Assign patient to private room if hygiene practices are unacceptable
■ Avoid eating, drinking, touching eyes, applying makeup in patient areas

Transmission-Based Precautions

AIRBORNE
■ Used for microorganisms that spread through air (droplet nuclei 5m
[e.g., TB, measles, chicken pox])
■ Private room; negative air pressure room; door closed; high-efficiency
disposable mask (replace when moist) or particulate respirator (e.g., for
TB); transport patient with mask, teach to dispose soiled tissues in fluidimpervious
bag at bedside

DROPLET
■ Used for microorganisms spread by large-particle droplets (droplet nuclei
5m, (e.g., pneumonia [streptococcal, mycoplasmal, meningococcal],
rubella, mumps, influenza, adenovirus)
■ Private room if available or cohort pts, mask when within 3ft of pt, door
open, mask for pt when transporting, teach to dispose soiled tissues in
fluid-impervious bag at bedside

CONTACT
■ Used for organisms spread by direct or indirect contact; methicillinresistant
S. aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE),
vancomycin intermediate-resistant S. aureus (VISA); enteric pathogens
(e.g., E. coli, C. difficile), herpes simplex, pediculosis, hepatitis A and E,
varicella zoster, respiratory syncytial virus
■ Private room or cohort pts; gowns, gloves over-gown cuffs; dedicate
equipment



airborne, contact precaution, droplet
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